Impulsivity and risk-taking following focal frontal lobe damage.

by Darlene Patricia Floden

Written in English
Published: Pages: 158 Downloads: 471
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Clinical observations of impulsive or risk-taking behaviour are common in patients with frontal lobe damage. However, few studies have attempted to empirically verify these observations. The goals of this work were: to dissociate impulsivity and risk-taking in patients with damage to frontal and nonfrontal regions, as well as in neurologically normal control subjects; to investigate any lesion specificity associated with these behaviour patterns, and; to examine potential mechanisms underlying these behaviours. This study employed a novel gambling procedure to separate impulsivity (disinhibited, rapid responding) and risk-taking (preference for low probability/high reward response options). The results showed that, contrary to early clinical observations, impulsive responding was not exacerbated in patients with frontal lobe damage, at least in the context of a probabilistic gambling task. Moreover, impulsivity was not related to slowed inhibitory speed as measured in the Stop Signal Task. Patients with damage to the right superior medial frontal region showed impaired inhibitory speed whereas frontal patients who showed impulsive gambling performance tended to have lesions to the right lateral region. These findings suggest that, within the domain of impaired response-related mechanisms, distinct forms of impulsivity may exist. Correlations with a self-report measure of real-world impulsivity, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11 (Patton, Stanford, & Barratt, 1995), further suggested that impulsive behaviours noted in clinical observations may stem from cognitive rather than motor mechanisms.Risk-taking, on the other hand, was specific to patients with frontal lobe damage involving the left ventrolateral or orbital regions. Moreover, ventrolateral and orbital damage to the left frontal lobe was also associated with reduced responsiveness to negative outcomes, suggesting that a deficit in outcome evaluation underlies the risk-taking behaviour of these patients. The fact that the frontal lobe group showed a disconnection of physiological response and behaviour further supports an evaluative deficit explanation of risky behaviour following frontal lobe damage. Together, these results confirm and qualify the functional dissociation of the frontal lobes in the production of flexible, goal-directed behaviour.

The Physical Object
Pagination158 leaves.
Number of Pages158
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL19475776M
ISBN 100494029021

Pertzov Y, Miller TD, Gorgoraptis N, Caine D, Schott JM, Butler C, Husain M. () Binding deficits in memory following medial temporal lobe damage in patients with voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody-associated limbic encephalitis. Brain PMID In a concussion without visible evidence, once called a closed head injury, the skull is not penetrated. Brain damage occurs as a result of an external force that causes the brain to move within the skull, producing any combination of the following: focal (direct contact), diffuse, rotation, sound pressure, or generalized injury.   The prevalence of problem and pathological gambling in adolescence and young adulthood has been found to be two- to fourfold higher than in adulthood. Given that these high rates might predict future increases across all age groups, it is important to explore the causes of the elevated rates of problem and pathological gambling among youths. This article reviews . The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of mammals, located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere and positioned anterior to (in front of) the parietal lobe and superior and anterior to the temporal lobes. It is separated from the parietal lobe by a space between tissues called the central sulcus, and from the temporal lobe by a deep fold.

Background: Very little research thus far has examined the decision making that underlies inappropriate social behavior (ISB) post-TBI (traumatic brain injury). Objectives: To verify the usefulness of a new instrument, the Social Responding Task, for investigating whether, in social decision making, individuals with TBI, who present inappropriate social behavior (ISB), have Cited by: 2. Frontal lobe damage results in a variety of behaviors that make learning from consequences difficult for these students. Therefore behavioral management strategies need to shift from consequences to antecedents to address these student’s needs (See Tutorial on Positive Behavior Supports.). We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to . Study Psychiatry flashcards from Sam B. on StudyBlue. Subfalcine - cingulate gyrus under falx cerebri due to unilateral hemispheric expansion, compresses ACA Parahippocampal - medial temporal lobe against free margin of tentorium Tonsillar Herniation - cerebellar tonsils through foramen magnum - life threatening, compresses medulla Central - diencephalon through .

Vocabulary 5α-reductase An enzyme required to convert testosterone to 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Ability model An approach that views EI as a standard intelligence that utilizes a distinct set of mental abilities that (1) are intercorrelated, (2) relate to other extant intelligences, and (3) develop with age and experience (Mayer & Salovey, ). The frontal lobe houses the motor cortex, which controls voluntary skeletal movement and fine, repetitive motor movements. The parietal lobe performs sensory data processing and interpretation of tactile, visual, gustatory, olfactory, and auditory sensations. KAPLAN Q-BANK BOOK-2 Q A yr-old man is recuperating in a hospital after having sustained a recent CVA that damaged part of his right temporal lobe. Once the patient has recuperated from the immediate effects of his stroke which of the following psychiatric parameters will he be most predisposed. Gender differences in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) have been reported in the literature but not well characterized or explored. In the present work, we propose that steroid hormone estrogens delay the onset of FTLD in pre-menopausal women compared to age equivalent men, and may provide neuroprotection in the early post-menopausal : Claire V. Flaherty, Arghavan S. Zangeneh, Marissa A. Harrison, Sanjana Marikunte.

Impulsivity and risk-taking following focal frontal lobe damage. by Darlene Patricia Floden Download PDF EPUB FB2

Impulsivity and risk-taking behavior in focal frontal lobe lesions. Floden D(1), Alexander MP, Kubu CS, Katz D, Stuss DT. Author information: (1)Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Frontal lobe dysfunction may underlie excessively impulsive and risky behavior observed in a range of neurological by: Frontal lobe dysfunction may underlie excessively impulsive and risky behavior observed in a range of neurological disorders. We devised a gambling task to examine these behavior tendencies in a sample of patients who had sustained focal damage to the frontal lobes or nonfrontal cortical regions as well as in a matched sample of healthy control by: Risk taking.

An increase in impulsivity, risk taking or both is often seen in individuals following frontal lobe damage. The two related terms differ in that impulsivity is a response disinhibition, while risk taking is related to the reward-based aspects of decision-making. Impulsivity and risk-taking behavior in focal frontal lobe lesions Article in Neuropsychologia 46(1) February with Reads How we measure 'reads'.

Thus, adolescent impulsivity due to poor development of executive functions is a risk period for addition due to the high experimentation, risk taking and active learning of associations. After initiation of drinking, progressive increased drinking may damage frontal areas leading to a progressive lose of executive function that may ultimately Cited by: Thus, adolescent impulsivity due to poor development of executive functions is a risk period for addition due to the high experimentation, risk-taking and active learning of associations.

After initiation of drinking, progressive increased drinking may damage frontal areas leading to a progressive lose of executive function that may ultimately Cited by: Risk-taking behavior (RTB) Impulsivity= (IMP) Past research Why is IMP and RTB connected with frontal lobe damages.

Current Research Result Subjects: 11 (frontal lobe damage) + 6 (cortical lesions outside frontal lobes) + 11 (neurologically normal) = 28 total Took baseline tests. damage to frontal lobe will show preservation, aka continue with a way of doing something after they've been told it's wrong frontal lobe damage personality changes impaired responses, increased risk taking, gambling, altered sexual behavior, impaired social behavior.

Impulsivity, Frontal Lobes and Risk for Addiction Article Literature Review (PDF Available) in Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 93(3) June with 1, Reads. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research. (, January 4). Reduced Frontal-lobe Activity And Impulsivity May Be Linked To Alcoholism Risk.

ScienceDaily. Retrieved Ap from www. Darlene Robbins-Turner has written: 'Wake Up and Recognize' -- subject(s): Attitudes, Gang members, Gangs, Juvenile literature, Youth. When this area is under active, you become distracted more easily. Also, it leads to a decreased ability to express thoughts and feelings and an increased vulnerability to.

MRI studies have shown that the frontal area is the most common region of injury following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. There are important asymmetrical differences in the frontal lobes. The left frontal lobe is involved in controlling language related movement, whereas the right frontal lobe plays a role in non-verbal abilities.

This article reviews the literature on the cognitive neuroscience of human decision making, focusing on the roles of the frontal lobes, and provides a conceptual framework for organizing this disparate body of work.

The contributions of lesion laterality and lesion volume to decision-making impairment following frontal lobe damage Cited by: Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Seaman on frontal lobe damage behavior: I have treated a few patients with eeg-confirmed simple focal epilepsy (tle) whose primary presentation included unprecipitated aggressive outbursts, and even a few with atypical appetitive behaviors.

As "bad behavior" has many potential causes though, please see a md specializing in epilepsy. Impulsivity is a common and debilitating sequela following traumatic brain injury (TBI), but there is no consensual definition or measure to assess this construct. The following review aims to elucidate the differences and resemblances between impulsivity, disinhibition and other related terms following brain injury and the instruments that are commonly used to measure these Cited by: An interesting phenomenon of frontal lobe damage is the insignificant effect it can have on traditional IQ testing.

Researchers believe that this may have to do with IQ tests typically assessing convergent rather than divergent thinking. Frontal lobe damage seems to have an impact on divergent thinking, or flexibility and problem solving ability.

A new study provides a novel theory for how delusions arise and why they persist. Researchers performed an in-depth analysis of patients. Start studying Psychology exam 3. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

Teen impulsivity is to frontal lobe development, as old age _____ is to frontal lobe atrophy. Your aging aunt Luella has had a series of small strokes. These strokes can progressively damage her brain and are most likely to.

frontal lobe (i.e., executive) functions, followed by a description of the types of problems that result from frontal lobe damage. Conceptualization of the ways in which these frontal lobe deficiencies may be related to violence are offered, and relevant research regarding this relationship is reviewed Elsevier Science Ltd.

All rights. Introduction. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases in the world, second only to Alzheimer’s disease (Aarsland, Bronnick, & Fladby, ).Although PD is diagnosed on the basis of the cardinal motor symptoms—bradykinesia, tremors, rigidity, and postural instability—there is also a consistent array of non-motor, cognitive symptoms, and Cited by: 3.

inservice - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation .ppt /.pptx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. A comprehensive guide for improving memory, focus, and quality of life in the aftermath of a concussion.

Often presenting itself after a head trauma, concussion— or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)— can cause chronic migraines, depression, memory, and sleep problems that can last for years, referred to as post concussion syndrome (PCS).Brand: Penguin Publishing Group.

Damage to frontal lobe circuitry is damage to the most evolutionarily recent part of the brain, and may damage the very qualities that distinguish our humanity (Rakic, ). These structures allow us the liberty of choice over instinct and habit — qualities that also allow us.

Aron AR, Fletcher PC, Bullmore ET, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW () Stop-signal inhibition disrupted by damage to right inferior frontal gyrus in humans. Nat Neurosci – PubMed Google Scholar Bari A, Robbins TW, Dalley JW () by: (15) Behavioral disinhibition as a result of damage to frontal lobe could be seen as a result of consumption of alcohol and CNS (Central Nervous System) depressants drugs, e.g.

benzodiazepines that disinhibit the frontal cortex from self-regulation and control. (e.g. "Coping with Concussion and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury is a long-awaited prescription for the millions who experience a so-called mild TBI and for their families and care providers.

Incorporating detailed information, practical suggestions, and personal insights, Dr. Stoler has compiled a must-have encyclopedia for managing life after concussion."/5(61).

Does adolescent risk taking imply weak executive function. A prospective study of relations between working memory performance, impulsivity, and risk taking in early adolescence. Developmental Science, Vol. 14, Issue. 5, p. Cited by: Miller LA () Impulsivity, risk-taking, and the ability to synthesize fragmented information after frontal lobectomy.

Neuropsychologia 69–79 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Morgan MA, Romanski LM, LeDoux JE () Extinction of emotional learning: contribution of medial prefrontal cortex. The frontal lobe of the brain sits just above the eyes as is considered our emotional control center and home to our personality.

Due to its location, it is very susceptible to traumatic brain injury (TBI) in car, bus or truck accidents, football or sports injuries or. areas at the frontal lobe area showing decreased activity there.

Overall impulsivity –cognitive and behavioral Also, explore alexithymia And working memory –human RAM. Risk taking behaviors/habit Diet habits.Decision Neuroscience addresses fundamental questions about how the brain makes perceptual, value-based, and more complex decisions in non-social and social contexts.

This book presents compelling neuroimaging, electrophysiological, lesional, and neurocomputational models in combination with hormonal and genetic approaches, which have led to a clearer .Frontal lobe development Data from Jay Giedd, NIMH Curve for frontal lobe energy demands follows a similar path.

That is, as gray matter volumes go up so do energy needs, as gray matter volumes go down energy needs go down. In addition, frontal lobe circuits become more efficient once covered in myelin in late teens.